Dietary intakes of B vitamins and other components involved in one-carbon metabolism, which is necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression, may be associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated associations between intakes of 11 nutrients (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, vitamin B12, methionine, choline, and betaine) and gastric cancer risk. A total of 159 incident gastric cancer cases were identified from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N = 41,513) and matched with 159 controls on year of birth, sex, and country of birth using incidence density sampling. Dietary intakes of nutrients were estimated at baseline (1990–1994) using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for Helicobacter pylori infection, and other potential confounders. We observed a positive association between intake of niacin and overall gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01–1.75 per SD increment). For thiamine, heterogeneity by subtype (cardia and non-cardia) was found (Phet = 0.05), with weak evidence of an inverse association with cardia cancer risk. Our results do not support increasing intakes of B vitamins or other nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism to reduce gastric cancer risk in a well-nourished population.